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(2011) found that the maximum weight of Sue, the largest complete Tyrannosaurus specimen, was between 9.5 and 18.5 metric tons (9.3–18.2 long tons; 10.5–20.4 short tons), though the authors stated that their upper and lower estimates were based on models with wide error bars and that they "consider [them] to be too skinny, too fat, or too disproportionate" and provided a mean estimate at 14 metric tons (15.4 short tons) for this specimen. (2009) tested dinosaur mass estimation procedures on elephants and concluded that those of dinosaurs are flawed and produce over-estimations; thus, the weight of Tyrannosaurus, as well as other dinosaurs, could have been much less.Due to the relatively small number of recovered specimens and the large population of individuals present at any given time when Tyrannosaurus was alive, there could have easily been larger specimens than those currently known including "Sue", though discovery of these largest individuals may be forever untenable due to the incomplete nature of the fossil record.The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including its life history and biomechanics.
The question of whether Tyrannosaurus was an apex predator or a pure scavenger was among the longest ongoing debates in paleontology.
It is accepted now that Tyrannosaurus rex acted as a predator, and opportunistically scavenged as modern mammalian and avian predators do.
But in other respects Tyrannosaurus's skull was significantly different from those of large non-tyrannosauroid theropods.
It was extremely wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision.
Because all known skin impressions from larger tyrannosauroids known at the time showed evidence of scales, the researchers who studied Dilong speculated that feathers may correlate negatively with body size—that juveniles may have been feathered, then shed the feathers and expressed only scales as the animal became larger and no longer needed insulation to stay warm.